Sometimes reality is more wonderful than fiction
Bulgars, a Turkic tribe in Central-Eastern Europe
The settlement of Turks
in Eastern Europe
Turks as Carriers of the Corded Ware Culture in Central-Eastern Europe.
Ethnicity of archaeological cultures in the 2nd Millennium B. C.
Bulgarish place names in western Ukraine, Poland and Hungary
Traces of contacts of the Turkic and Indo-European languages
Common vocabulary of the Chuvash and German languages
Scythian-Sarmatian time.
Ancient Turkic-Slavic language connections
        As the archaeology evidences, at least from the end of the III millennium BC, and probably earlier, the Pit culture people which we associate with the Turkic tribes of the Bulgars began entering on the right bank of the Dnieper. The newcomers brought their own items in the Trypilla culture prevalent here. For example, remains of the Usatovo group of the Trypillian culture have clear traces of connections with the Pit culture spread on the area of the Dnieper Left Bank. Obviously, these remains were left by Bulgar tribes that originally reached the rivers Syniukha and Ingulets and then moved to the north-west along the banks of the Dniester. Human skeleton, buried in the back with knees bent, ie in a pose typical for people of so-called "Kurgan" cultures, which was found near the village of Nezvisko in Ivano-Frankivsk Region, may indicate this motion. In addition, Trypillian pottery mixed with sand and crushed shells, the peculiarity of the Pit culture, can be found in these places. Anthropological study of the archaeological sites of the North-Western Black Sea suggests the process of mating and mutual assimilation of the Trypillian people and tribes of Pit culture which came here.
        Place names remained in the West Ukraine, Poland and Hungary till now help to track the specific location of settlements of ancient Bulgars, as well as evidence of their linguistic contacts with Indo-European peoples.
        Conclusion about the presence of the Turkic peoples in Eastern Europe in the Bronze Age contradicts many science views. The Turkic languages are traditionally included into the Altaic family motivating on typological affinity with Mongolic. Moreover, according to M. Erdal, N. Poppe, O. Pritsak and some other linguists believed that "the Bulgar-Chuvash branch is somehow intermediate between the Turkic and Mongolian languages". However, such views are not universally accepted. For example, Karl Menges believed that Chuvash has little Altaic words. If not counting pronouns, only six or seven Chuvash words have matches only in the Mongolian language, but that does not mean that they are absent in other Turkic languages or never existed, or were not present in the Old Turkic language.
        The presence of ancient Bulgars in western Ukraine, Poland, and Hungary, has been confirmed with new additional data of toponymy, ethnography, and sometimes even completely unpredictable facts, such as, for example, the Turkic runic characters in the cave sanctuary on the Dniester. Such a coincidence has negligible likelihood that almost can be ignored.
Ancient Bulgar cave sanctuary on the Dniester
Signs in the cave sanctuary on the Dniester
About some names of metals in Turkic and Indo-European languages
Common Turkic – Indoeuropean Heritage in Names of Plants
To the Source of Brewing at the Indo-European Peoples
Sketch on the Development of Merchandise in Eastern Europe at Prehistoric Times
The Comparison of the Ukrainian and Chuvash Embroideries.
        The presence of ancient Bulgars in western Ukraine in Pre-Scythian and Scythian time is confirmed by common elements in popular culture of Chuvash and Ukrainians. Ukraine's territory was inhabited by all the time and, due the principle of superposition, life experience and cultural tradition was delivered up by the local population to aliens even in spite of large-scale migrations. In many ways, the need for such transmission of information was conditioned by the nature of local geography, the landscape, the composition of raw and building materials, natural dyes, etc. Thus, popular culture Ukrainians excepted and kept some cultural elements of the Bulgars till our time. This question was be considered more detailed later.
Symbols of the sun in the form of rosettes of Chuvash type кĕскĕ in Ukrainian (top row) and Chuvash (lower row) embroidery.
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